28 February 2013

Books for Gardeners - late winter reading


Spring garden preparation has begun: seed orders are in, pots are cleaned, leaves are raked and the remaining bits of last fall’s garden will go to the compost pile.

Early spring vegetable and flower seeds can be sown indoors under lights now to get ready for planting outside in April. Also, it is time to order from the Tulsa Master Gardener’s spring plant sale. Orders are due March 28 for April 18 pick-ups. The pre-order form is at http://tulsamastergardeners.org. 

Between now and the first planting day of spring there will be plenty of time for learning new tricks and discovering new plants, so here are five books from a new crop of publications that would be good late-winter reading.

 “Starting Seeds: How to Grow Healthy Productive Vegetables, Herbs and Flowers from Seed” by Barbara Ellis, 120 page pocket-size paperback, published by Storey (www.storey.com). List price $9; $4 at online vendors.

Ellis says “seeds set the rules” and to be successful we just have to discover and follow those rules. She recommends that you start with easy-to-grow plants that are ones you really want to grow. Fast-growing, cool weather crops are the easiest. Seed types, how to read a seed packet, make your own seed tape, germination tips and seed-saving are included in the first half of the book. The remaining pages are step-by-step techniques to starting seeds in the ground or in containers, under lights, indoors.

“The 50 Mile Bouquet: Seasonal, Local and Sustainable Flowers” by Debra Prinzing and David E. Perry, St. Lynn’s Press (stlynnspress.com). List price$18; $11 at online book vendors.

The importance of locally grown vegetables and fruit applies to cut flowers and potted plants as well. Bouquets from the farmer’s market are usually grown within 50-miles of where they are sold. The book is a series of interviews and stories about small growers who are committed to providing their customers with beautiful flowers grown in good soil with a minimum of chemical intervention. When you buy local, sustainability and beauty are included. 

“All New Square Foot Gardening: The Revolutionary Way to Grow More in Less Space” by Mel Bartholomew, Cool Springs Press (coolspringspress.com). List price $25; $14 online.

Vegetable Gardening Blog
Bartholomew’s 1981 version of this book caused a sensation and the 2013 update has more ideas, how-to illustrations, plant varieties and a planting schedule.   The basics are: Garden close to the house, build planting boxes, use Mel’s soil mix, skip the fertilizer, plan for easy access, plant in grids not rows, and plant close together to prevent weeds.
To complete the projects, tools and comfort using them will be required.

“Why Grow That When You Can Grow This? 255 Extraordinary Alternatives to Everyday Problem Plants” by Andrew Keys, Timber Press (timberpress.com) $25 list price; $15 online. 

Keys, a native of MS, fell in love with plants early in life. Whether you are looking for trees, shrubs, vines, perennials, grasses or groundcovers, you will find a way to have what you want. On each page, a popular but problem-causing plant is named and a few easier-to-grow “Extraordinary Alternative” plants are described in detail. Plenty of humor and lots of good suggestions will make this a popular choice for new homeowners as well as experienced gardeners.
“The Speedy Vegetable Garden” by Mark Diacono and Lia Leendertz, Timber Press (timberpress.com), List price $19; $13 online.  

Diaccono and Leendertz present a new approach to DIY produce:  Grow sprouts, microgreens, edible flowers, cut-and-come-again salad leaves, and quick-harvest vegetables.  The two young authors provide plenty of photos, illustrations, recipes and inspiration for those who have little space, not much time or dwindling patience for growing a full-size garden. Plenty of how-to help is included.

26 February 2013

Bring Butterflies, Skippers and Moths to Your Garden

Many people love the sight of butterflies, moths and skippers in their garden. Planning ahead can help bring more this summer.

Carole Sevilla Brown recently posted a list of five actions to take to improve your butterfly gardening and it's an important place to start. Brown's blog entry is at
http://www.beautifulwildlifegarden.com/5-steps-to-butterfly-garden.html

Maybe you have some ideas that work for you. We'd love to hear those since we always want more!

Start Here
Find out what kind of butterflies, moths and skippers are common or native to your neck of the woods so you can plant what they raise their babies (caterpillars or larvae) on. When these insects are born in your garden they tend to stick around and make a few new generations as long as the food lasts.


Butterfly weed - Asclepias tuberosa
Mass planting instead of spot planting is a great suggestion from Brown's blog. A single zinnia here and there will bring a single adult butterfly since only one at a time can nectar. 

A mass of butterfly weed, rue, dill, parsley and other caterpillar food will encourage females to lay several eggs.

Migrating butterflies, moths and skippers are another set of issues since they go where the weather suits them. During our last two drought and record heat summers, monarchs have avoided our area for the most part. Before this recent change in weather, we had several generations of monarchs during migration but in the past two years, only one or two.

The Butterfly Site has lists of natives by state at
http://www.thebutterflysite.com/butterfly-gardening-by-area.shtml

You can click on your state and get not only a list of them but click on a name to see photos of adults, caterpillar, egg and chrysalis. Skippers are on the same page.

There are also links to worldwide butterfly pages, how-to tips on butterfly gardening, etc.

Most butterfly houses you visit feed their butterflies Gator Aid and we do, too. We put it out with over-ripe fruit in protected plates raised above the ground.

Males need mud and that's easy to provide in a saucer on the ground. They give the minerals in the mud to the females when they fertilize the eggs.


Zinnias bring butterflies and skippers to the garden.
  Many food plants of butterfly caterpillars are easily started from seed this month making it possible to have masses of what they like ready to go as soon as warm days bring them out from their winter hiding places.





Shady Oak Butterfly Farm posted this on Facebook
Pipevine Swallowtail and Polydamas (Gold Rim) Swallowtail Host Plants
*Most if not all of these plants go by the common name Dutchman’s Pipe which is why the scientific name is so important.

Pipevine Swallowtail:
  • Aristolochia tomentosa (wooly pipevine)
  • Aristolochia Fimbriata (white veined pipevine)
  • Aristolochia Macrophylla or Aristolochia Durior (Dutchman’s pipe)
  • Aristolochia Pandurata synonym of Aristolochia odoratissima L (fragrant Dutchman’s pipe)
  • Aristolochia Serpentaria (Virginia Snakeroot) (one plant is never large enough to raise even one caterpillar)
  • Aristolochia Clematitis (birthwort)
Gold Rim / Polydamas Swallowtail host plants:
  • Aristolochia Elegans (calico flower)
  • Aristolochia Pandurata synonym of Aristolochia odoratissima L (fragrant Dutchman’s pipe)
  • Aristolochia Trilobata (Dutchman’s pipe)
  • Aristolochia Gigantea (Brazilian Dutchman’s Pipe, Giant Pelican Flower)
  • Aristolochia Tagala (Indian birthwort)
Neither will eat:
  • Aristolochia ringens (gaping Dutchman’s pipe)
  • Aristolochia brasiliensis (Dutchman’s pipe)


24 February 2013

Powdery Mildew - organic remedy

Patricia Rorabaugh, assistant professor of plant sciences at the Controlled Environment Agriculture Center at the University of Arizona uses no chemical treatments on her plants.

Purdue Plant & Pest Diagnostic Lab
Her remedy for powdery mildew on plants is  
"We typically only have problems with two types of fungi: powdery mildew and botrytis. With powdery mildew, which almost always appears on the cucumbers, we use a combination of water (3 gallons), vegetable oil (87 milliliters) and baking soda (9 rounded teaspoons). This is a contact spray and should be sprayed directly onto the powdery mildew spots on a regular basis (once or twice a week). We also get powdery mildew on the peppers which, unlike the cucumber powdery mildew, goes into the underside of the leaf via the stomates and is then untouched by the contact spray. To get to the underside of leaves, a trans- laminar spray must be used that goes into the leaves and kills the powdery mildew from the inside."

Read the entire interview with Rorabaugh at
http://www.growingproduce.com/article/32538/pest-scouting-pointers-for-greenhouse-vegetables?utm_source=SilverpopMailing&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=GG%20Vegetable%20eNews%20Feb%2021%202013%20(1)&utm_content=

23 February 2013

Seed Tape and Seed Disks

Johnny's Seeds sent out an email blast about a sale on their seed tape and seed disks.

Tiny seeds for carrot, lettuce and thyme can wash away if they are planted in the ground. My solution has usually been to plant in flats or pots.

Have you used seed tape and disks? Would you use them again?
http://www.territorialseed.com/category/Seed_Tape_and_Seed_Disks/?utm_source=Newsletter%2BFeb%2B2013%2B4&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=feb2013%2B4%2BSeed%2BTape

On the other hand, I have made my own seed tape type of planting thing with single sheet paper towel or bathroom tissue or even a single sheet of  Kleenex tissue. You can use honey or cornstarch water to mix with the seed in a squirt bottle.

Here are some DIY instructions for making your own.
http://www.instructables.com/id/Make-Your-Own-Seed-Tapes/

Giverslog
At Giverslog, they use newsprint and flour-water - check it out at http://www.giverslog.com/?p=2484

My other tried and true method for starting fine seed: plant it on damp potting soil, cover it with damp, cheap paper towel (thinnest is best) and mist it daily. The seedlings pop through the damp towel quite readily.

21 February 2013

Microgreens - grow them at home


Microgreens are vegetable and herb seeds grown in water or in soil and harvested when there are only one or two sets of leaves.

 

Baby greens, sold as bagged baby green salad or mesclun are essentially the same thing but grown another few weeks until the leaves are larger.

 

In order to have a pot full of microgreens, the seeds are sown close together. Planted that way, the seedlings grow tall and straight with a tender stem and bright-colored leaves.

 

The attraction of microgreens is their nutritional value. Some, such as broccoli, flax, beets, mustard, chia and wheat grass are grown for specific healing properties. Others, such as sunflowers, corn and pea shoots are grown as nutritious garnishes for the restaurant industry.

 

The vitamin and mineral values of microgreens is concentrated. WebMd says they are 40-times more nutrient dense than full-size lettuce, cabbage, and other green vegetable leaves.

 

Sharon Owen, owner of Moonshadow Herb Farm, grows microgreens to sell at the Muskogee Farmers Market. She said, “A lot of people grow them on a sunny porch or deck if they live in a temperate climates. I grow them under lights, in a controlled environment that is very clean, so there is little chance of anything going wrong.

 

Here are the basics of growing microgreens at home in containers -

 

*Find a warm place where containers will receive a minimum of 4 hours of sunlight or bright artificial light.

 

*Select containers that are 2-inches deep (recycled yogurt containers, etc.)

If you have a clear plastic berry or lettuce box (clamshell), line it with a coffee filter.

Microgreen growing mats are also available (www.growingmicrogreens.com).

 

*Fill containers with soil-less planting mix and lightly press soil to firm.

 

*Scatter seeds 1/4 inch apart.

 *To speed up the growth process, seeds can be soaked overnight before planting.

 * Cover the seeds with 1/8 to  ¼ inch planting mix or vermiculite.

 *Spray the planted seeds with a misting bottle or water the containers from the bottom. Never let them dry out completely and never let the soil stay dripping wet. When the first set of leaves appears they can be clipped and eaten or allowed to grow more.

 *Spotlessly clean growing conditions and water are critical to avoiding contamination problems.

 *In 5 to 21 days, harvest the greens by snipping off the tops when they have 2 sets of leaves (one set of true leaves) or allow them to grow larger, as desired.
 
Microgreens - radishes under lights after 5 days

Microgreen roots - grown in strawberry clamshell
  When I presoaked radish seeds and put the container under lights, single-leaf microgreenswere ready to use in 5 days.

 

*For a continuous supply, snip the plants above the first set of leaves and allow them to grow longer, or plant fresh seeds every 7 to 10 days.

 

*After harvesting microgreens, discard soil and seeds, sterilize the containers, and begin again.

 

Some popular microgreens include: Arugula, basil, radish, peas, chives, red cabbage, watercress, kale, and lettuce.

 

Jalene Riley - Utopia Gardens
Jalene Riley, owner of Utopia Gardens in Drumright said, “I like to mix seed varieties for more flavor. You could combine lettuce, arugula, broccoli and pre-soaked pea seeds to make a delicious microgreen salad.”   

 

Until gardening season begins in April, you can bring nutrition and fresh flavors to your table and lunch box with homegrown microgreens.

 

There is a good tutorial with helpful step-by-step illustrations at http://bit.ly/XeRNag.

Growing Microgreens (www.growingmicrogreens.com) has kits that cost $30 to $90.

SproutPeople (http://sproutpeople.org) sells seeds; their "Sprout School" link is informative.

For visual learners, Benjamin Carroll of the Chicago Botanic Garden has a video at

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9h1ADMsKQTg.

Companies such as Johnny's Seeds and High Mowing Seeds sell microgreen and sprouting seeds and many can be purchased locally.

For more instructions and resources visit Mark Braunstein’s website at www.markbraunstein.org/growmicrogreens.htm.

 














19 February 2013

Easy Early Spring Choices to Grow from Seed -

Here in northeast Oklahoma fruit trees, bare root roses and seed racks are showing up in stores. That's our signal to start the early spring vegetables and spring flwoers that do not tolerate the heat of early summer.

If you are dreaming of spring, there are some plants you can get going with in February.

Cool weather flowers such as alyssum and calendula are easy to start from seed. Early season vegetables include green beans, beets, radishes, snow peas and everything in the brassicas and cole family.

If you are new to seed starting pick up a handy book such as "Starting Seeds" by Barbara Elllis. It's small enough to fit into the pocket of your garden apron and has all the basics plus some fun things to try. Published by Storey Books http://storey.com/, $9 list price and $4 at online booksellers.

When deciding whether to start seeds indoors with heat or outside in a cold frame or in milk jugs, check a germination resource such as http://www.hardyplants.com/A.htm or http://tomclothier.hort.net/index.html

Early Vegetables that are easy to start from seed

Beans, Italian flat, bush beans, runner beans pole beans though not ornamental beans yet.
 
Greens: Cabbage, Broccoli, Cauliflower, Brussels Sprouts, Cima de Rappa, Brocollini, Spinach, Lettuce, Chard, Kale, Arugula,
 
Radishes - red, long white, etc.
 
Beets - round, cylindrical, etc. 
 
Snow Peas

Carrots

Turnip, Kohlrabi

Sets: Onions and Potatoes
 
 Cool weather Flowers that are easy to start from seed
 
Alyssum flowers in cool weather during spring and summer.
Calendula or Pot Marigold
Calendula or Pot Marigold makes nice bouquets and can be added to salads. They also bring early pollinators to the garden.
 
There is a nice chart here http://veggieharvest.com/calendars/zone-7.html

The OK State Univeristy planting guide has a complete list at
http://pods.dasnr.okstate.edu/docushare/dsweb/Get/Document-1092/HLA-6004web.pdf

16 February 2013

Mache and Arugula = harvesting now from outside beds

Mache and Arugula leaves are abundant enough for a few salads a week at this time of year.

Seeds planted in the fall, thrive in our cold winter weather, growing through snow though ice will slow or completely stop them.

Mache or lamb's lettuce, has been cultivated in France since the 17th century. Mache's agreeable winter-growth habit make it an ideal source of folate, vitamin C, A, K. Iron, and fiber.

Mache in the garden Feb 2013
  When I first started growing Mache, it was called Corn Salad, Field Lettuce. For travelers it is German Feldsalat and Netherlands veld salade and in France Valerianella locusta.

Fedco offers Mache seeds as 3102VC Verte de Cambrai M√Ęche. Fedco says "May be the same variety Thomas Jefferson grew in 1810 under the name Candia."

I scatter seeds in the fall during fall vegetable garden cleanup but here is a thorough explanation of how to grow Mache or Corn Salad for your winter table. http://www.vegetablegardener.com/item/4614/how-to-grow-mache-corn-salad-springs-first-green

Arugula on the other hand is spicy and an acquired taste if you have not eaten many greens other than lettuce or head cabbage. Arugula is often called Rocket. It has  it has folates, phytochemicals, anti-oxidants, vitamins (A, B complex, C and K), and minerals .
Arugula in my garden Feb 2013

Popular in Europe for hundreds of years, Arugula's many names include  rugola, rucola, roquette, garden rocket, Mediterranean rocket, salad rocket, Roman rocket, or Italian cress and French roquette).

Pick the leaves young, because Arugula can become bitter tasting when it is about to set seed.

At http://schreibersfarm.com/arugula.html I learned that, "In Roman times Arugula was grown for both it's leaves and the seed. The seed was used for flavoring oils. On another interesting note, Rocket or Arugula seed has been used as an ingredient in aphrodisiac concoctions dating back to the first century, AD. (Cambridge World History of Food).


                  Part of a typical Roman meal was to offer a salad of greens, frequently Arugula (spelled Arugola), romaine, chicory, mallow and lavender and seasoned with a "cheese sauce for lettuce"

Mache is mild and sweet - easy to use with your favorite salad toppings.

Arugula can stand up for itself and recipes can help. Try these http://www.seasonalchef.com/recipe0106c.htm



15 February 2013

A Salvia Summit March 7-10 at Huntington Botanical Garden California

Oh, how I wish I could attend any event called a Salvia Summit with Betsy Clebsch!

Here's the registration link if you are lucky enough to be in San Marino California March 7 to 10
http://www.seedhunt.com/salviasummit2013.html


Registration for the conference is now open. Please keep in mind that occupancy limits at our venue mean that the conference will be limited to 90 participants, so early registration is encouraged. You can access the registration form and updated program by going to "www.seedhunt.com" and clicking on the BLUE box in the upper left-hand corner of the screen where it says "Salvia Summit II", or you can just google "Salvia Summit".

On the Summit home page, click on Registration, and the instructions and link to the downloadable form will appear.
Please note that you have several ways to pay:

The money stuff
Fill out the form and send it in with a check ($230 per person)
Pay by PayPal and then send, e-mail, or fax the form.
Pay by credit card by filling out the form and faxing it.

Postal address

Salvia Summit II

c/o Jessie Schilling

P.O. Box 620673

Woodside, CA 94062
 
Fax
Ginny Hunt/Seedhunt
Fax: 831 728 5131
send email to confirm receipt
seedhunt@cruzio.comContact Jessie Schilling at [grew at pacbell.net] if you have further questions.





14 February 2013

Hot Lava Coneflower (Echinacea Hot Lava)

Echinacea 'Hot Lava' is a 2009 hybrid from the Terra Nova breeding program. The sturdy 4' tall stems are topped, starting in midsummer, with wide-petaled, orange-coned, bright reddish-orange flowers that attract hummingbirds...quite stunning.
It is available from Plant Delights Nursery www.plantdelights.com and other nurseries.

The Language of Flowers for Valentine's Day

 
 
Ageratum, hardy




Delay
Alyssum, sweet
Worth beyond beauty
Amaranth, globe
Immortality; unfading love
American Elm
Patriotism
Anemone, garden
Faith; anticipation
Angelica
Inspiration
Apple Blossom
Preference
Arborvitae
Unchanging friendship
Artemisia, silver king
Power; dignity
Aster
Beauty in retirement
Astilbe
“I’ll still be waiting”
Azalea
First love
Baby’s Breath
Pure heart
Bachelor’s Button
Felicity
Balm, lemon
Healing; rejuvenation
Bamboo
Loyalty; uprightness
Basil
Best wishes
Bay, tree
Glory
Bay, wreath
Reward of merit
Beebalm/Monarda
Compassion; sweet virtues
Bellflower/Campanula
Gratitude
Bells-of-Ireland
Whimsy
Bittersweet
Truth
Black-Eyed Susan
Justice
Bluebell
Constancy
Blueberry
Prayer; protection
Borage
Courage
Bugle/Ajuga
Cheers the heart; most lovable
Burnet, salad
Joy; a merry heart
Buttercup
Cheerfulness
Butterfly Bush/Buddlea
“Let me go”
Caladium
Great joy and delight
Calendula/Pot Marigold
Health; joy
Calla Lily
Panache
Carnation
Admiration; woman’s love
Cedar
Strength
Chamomile
Comfort; patience
Cherry, flowering
Nobility; chivalry
Chickweed
Rendezvous
Chrysanthemum
Cheerfulness; joy
Cinnamon
Love; beauty
Clematis
Ingenuity; mental beauty
Cloves
Dignity
Clover
Good luck
Cockscomb/Celosia
Silliness, humor
Columbine
Folly
Comfrey
Home sweet home
Coneflower
Skill; capability
Coral Bells
Challenge; scholarship
Coreopsis
Always cheerful
Coriander
Hidden worth
Corn
Riches
Cosmos
Modesty
Cranberry
Cure for heartache
Crocus
Youthful gladness
Daffodil
Regard; respect
Dahlia
Gratitude; respect
Daisy
Innocence; simplicity
Dandelion
Wishes come true
Daylily
Coquette; flirt; beauty
Delphinium
Well-being; sweetness
Dill
Irresistible; soothing
Dogwood
Faithfulness
Dusty Miller
Delicacy; venerable
Elderberry
Kindness; compassion; zeal
Elm
Dignity
Everlasting Pea
Lasting pleasure
Fennel
Force; strength; worthy of all praise
Fern
Fascination
Feverfew
Good health
Fig
Peace and prosperity
Fleur-de-Lis/Iris
Message; promise
Forget-Me-Not
True love; hope; remembrance
Forsythia
Good nature
Gardenia
“I love you in secret”
Garlic
Protection; good luck
Gayfeather/Liatris
Gaiety
Geranium
Comfort
Gladiolus
Generosity
Goldenrod
Encouragement
Grape
Domestic happiness
Heartsease/
Johnny-Jump-Up
Happy thoughts
Hibiscus
Delicate beauty
Holly
Foresight
Holly Berries
Christmas joy
Hollyhock
Fruitfulness
Honeysuckle
Bonds of love
Hosta
Devotion
Hyacinth, grape
Usefulness
Hydrangea
Devotion
Hyssop
Cleanliness
Ivy
Fidelity; wedded love
Jonquil
“I desire a return of affection”
Juniper
Protection; welcome to new home
Lamb’s Ear
Softness; gentleness
Larkspur
Levity
Laurel
Success; glory
Lavender
Devotion; happiness
Lemon
Zest; zeal
Lilac
Youth; modesty; acceptance
Lily
Purity
Locust Tree
Elegance
Lovage
Strength
Lupine
Imagination
Magnolia
Love of nature
Mallow
Mildness
Maple
Elegance; keys; beauty
Maple, Japanese
Baby’s hands
Marjoram, sweet
Blushes; mirth; courtesy
Mimosa
Sensitivity
Mint
Warmth of feeling
Mint, lemon
Virtue; homeyness
Morning Glory
The evanescent loveliness of life
Moss
Maternal love
Mugwort
Travel; comfort
Mulberry Tree, white
Wisdom
Mustard Seed
Faith
Myrtle
Love; marriage; home; peace
Myrtle, crepe
Eloquence
Nasturtium
Patriotism
Nigella/Love-in-a-Mist
Independence
Oak, leaves
Bravery; prosperity
Oak, tree
Hospitality
Obedient Plant
Obedience
Palm
Victory
Pansy
Loving thoughts
Parsley
Festivity
Pea, everlasting
Lasting pleasure
Pea, sweet
Tender memory
Peach
Longevity; health
Pear
Affection; health; hope
Peony
Welcome; hands full of cash
Peppermint
Warmth; cordiality
Phlox
“Our souls are united”
Pine
Loyalty; endurance
Pinecone
Fertility; life
Pinks/Dianthus
Sweetness; fascination
Plane Tree/Sycamore
Genius; curiosity
Plum
Peppy; enthusiasm
Plum Tree
Courage; hardiness
Pussy Willow
Friendship; recovery from illness
Queen Anne’s Lace
Haven; protection; “I will return”
Raspberry
Fulfillment; gentleheartedness
Reed
Music
Rocket
Queen of coquettes
Rose
Love; grace; joy
Rosemary
Remembrance
Sage
Wisdom; skill; esteem
Sage, pineapple
Hospitality
Salvia, blue
“I think of you”
Southernwood
Jest
Spearmint
Warmth of sentiment
Speedwell/Veronica
Female fidelity
Spirea
Victory
Statice
Dauntlessness
Strawberry
Perfect goodness; “You are delicious”
Strawflower
Never ceasing
Sweet William
Memory; childhood
Tendrils of Climbing
Plants
Ties
Thyme
Activity; bravery; strength
Tulip
Fame; charity; happy years
Verbena
Faithfulness
Verbena, lemon
Attractive to the opposite sex
Violet
Modesty; “I return your love”
Virginia Creeper
“I cling to you both in sunshine and
in shade”
Walnut
Intellect; strength of mind
Weigela
Accept a faithful heart
Wheat
Friendliness; prosperity
Willow
Freedom; serenity; friendship
Wisteria
Welcome fair stranger
Wormwood
Protection for travelers
Yarrow
Health; dispels melancholy
Zinnia
Thoughts of absent friends
SOURCES:
Hemphill, Rosemary. A Gift Book of Herbs and Herbal Flowers. Storey Communications, Inc.
Koch, Maryjo. Herbs: Delectables for All Seasons. Swans Island Books, 1997.
Kowalchik, Claire, and Hylton, William H., ed. Rodale’s Illustrated Encyclopedia of Herbs. Rodale Press, 1987.
Pickston, Margaret. The Language of Flowers. Beric Press Ltd., 1968.
Seguin-Fontes, Marthe. The Language of Flowers. Sterling Publishing, 2001.
Compiled by: JoAnn White, Tulsa Herb Society, 2008.