29 February 2016

Beefsteak Begonia - Propagate Stem Cuttings

Beefsteak Begonia
It's time to cut the long above ground root/rhizome off the Beefsteak Begonia and use the pieces to make more plants for friends.

This is such a gorgeous plant. The leaves look like lily pads and the flowers are a soft pink.

Begonia cutting with leaf
After pruning the long, fuzzy above-ground root/rhizome from the plant above, I cut it into sections and put each section into a self-watering container with sterile potting soil.


Begonia cutting with new growth







Each section of root that I plant has a leaf attached and the cutting is tucked just below the soil level.

As you can see, one of them already has a new dark-red-green leaf and a tiny pink flower bud.

Beefsteak Begonias like to be on the dry side even when you are propagating the roots to make new plants.

Brad's Begonia World

27 February 2016

Witch Hazel and Fringeflower Blooming February

Native Witch Hazel, Hamamelis virgiana - February
In our back garden the native Witch Hazel Shrub, Hamamelis virgiana, grows next to Chinese Fringe flower, Loropetalum chinese.


This has been an especially mild winter so we can be outside for several hours a day now, admiring the daffodils, cleaning out the oak leaves and prepping the vegetable beds.

The Witch Hazel shrub came from
Pine Ridge Gardens native plant nursery in Arkansas.

It was only a one-gallon size shrub so it took a few years for it to mature enough to bloom.

This year it was completely covered with flowers! Here's a Fine Gardening article link to all things Witch Hazel. MOBOT praises its ability to cover a hillside and thrive in clay soils.
Chinese Fringeflower, Loropetalum chines - February


The Chinese Fringe flower shrub came in a 6-inch pot probably also three years ago. It isn't as tall as the Witch Hazel yet but is equally rewarding in terms of its urge to produce beautiful flowers in late winter.

This is one of the Proven Winners varieties from Spring Meadows Nursery. This one is called Jazz Hands Variegated. The leaves are variegated when they are young and mature to a rich, solid green as they mature.

At this time of year there are few leaves so the pink flowers are really a standout.

Both of these shrubs need some protection from our blazing summer heat so they are great companions that do not take over or grow too large for a home garden.

25 February 2016

Grow Food for Money on Borrowed Land

Curtis Stone is excited about encouraging more and more people to take up urban farming (http://theurbanfarmer.co). So excited, in fact, that he has books, podcasts and websites full of free information to help anyone get started growing food for profit. 

His book, “The Urban Farmer: Growing food for profit on leased and borrowed land”, provides over 250-pages of tips, formulas, bed layout plans, plant lists and step-by step instructions.

The key message is, “The important thing is to just get started.  Because once you show people you are willing to do the work all kinds of opportunities will present themselves.  Once you move past the talk, and you put your words into action, people see those actions, and opportunities just present themselves.”

Stone farms on urban plots. He borrows or leases neighborhood front yards and vacant lots that total one-third acre or 15,000 square feet. From that one-third acre, he sells $80,000 in vegetables annually.

The Pareto Law (80/20 rule) is the focus of his podcast on the Permaculture Voices website (www.permaculturevoices.com). That means: focus on the 20% of customers and products that bring the highest profits.

Ten rules came from a review of his spreadsheets: Follow your own ideology but be reasonable, be an early adopter, start small to keep overhead low, seek out experienced farmers for high quality information, focus on things you can measure, measure everything, focus on high yield crops and market streams, organize crop zones, diversify products and develop systems that can be duplicated.

Stone double dug every bed on every plot every year when he started. Now he uses a rototiller and no-till farming (weed-cloth) for established beds.

He emphasizes that now is the time because farmers are scarce. Less than 2% of North Americans know how to grow food, plus, the average age of farmers today is 65 and they are retiring.

Gain the skills to be a farmer and you will always have work. There has never been a better time to be a farmer than today and you do not have to own land.

Vegetable production in neighborhoods builds social equity. Put your growing plots in neighborhood front yards where they will be seen and people will come to you for fresh food.

Starting small is the key to urban farming. Stone started with $7,000, some YouTube videos, a few library books and some borrowed plots of land.

Critical to success is high-grade information gained from local growers. They can tell you which irrigation methods, soil amendments, insect control works etc..

Stone recommends that new growers form groups comprised of 1/3 who are where you want to be, 1/3 people who are where you are, and  1/3 who are a bit behind where you are. Sharing information with that group on a regular basis will accelerate your learning exponentially.

Focus on harvesting, planting and marketing because you can measure those. Weeding, thinning and irrigation are not things you can measure. Give up on perfection; 85% is good enough.

Streamline processes with washing tables, consolidated preparation area, drying tables and other simple solutions.

Stone uses an intensive farming method called SPIN that optimizes harvest times. Half his beds are planted four times a season.

Stone’s rules for crop selection are clear. Only grow crops with less than 85 days to maturity, with high yield per square foot, good price per pound, that have a 4-month harvest period, vegetables that are in high demand, and can be sold to area stores and chefs.


His business, Green City Acres, is in Vancouver, where the growing season is 7 months. “Urban Farmer” is published by New Society, www.newsociety.com, 2016.  $20. It is a must-read for aspiring growers.

23 February 2016

Tiny Seedlings - Poppies Cold Started Outside

On a Facebook international seed swap I trade seeds with a gardener in Sweden. We exchange seeds harvested from our own gardens, usually during the winter months. For her, the goal is to get my zone 7 seeds planted before her zone 6a soil is frozen solid.

Here, I winter-sow her seeds. Her semi-double purple poppies were planted in one of my gallon jug winter sown containers on 12-26-15 and they popped up last week.

When they were up and starting to grow true leaves, I moved the container into our heated shed, opened the top and let them sit in warmer temperatures in the sun for several days.

The next step is to gradually move them into individual cells.

The cell tray on the left holds just under 100 tiny containers. Each cell was filled with sterile potting soil and then put into a bottom watering tray to soak up water over night.

I used Popsicle sticks to separate the tiny seedlings and carefully put them into holes in the new soil that I made with a pencil. Then, more damp - not wet - soil is pressed around the seedlings to ensure contact.

It's a slow, careful process but next summer we'll have our own purple poppy seeds!

19 February 2016

Amaryllis Gift from Longfield Gardens

Longfield Gardens
Amaryllis Gift Box
Forcing bulbs inside over the winter is part of a long-standing hobby that brings beauty into the house when we really need it! Spring is struggling to arrive but isn't here yet and we want to mess around with plants.

A lovely gift box arrived this week from Longfield Gardens.


In addition to the planter, soil, bulb and topper in the box, there was something I had never seen before - a warming blanket for
the bulb to prevent it from freezing during transit.

It's pre-heated by the shipper and discarded by the recipient.

Planting instructions are included though I confess I read them after I planted my bulb.

If you are interested in sending one of these, you have a choice of Amaryllis colors. Click on this link to see photos of them all.

I'll post photos as it grows since watching the progress is half the thrill of planting one of these beauties.

Here it is in full flower

13 February 2016

Take Lavender Cuttings Now to Make New Plants

Lavender plant in Feb.
It's time to check your lavender plants for new growth and take cuttings to make new plants. I do this every year.

Most winters we lose at least one of our lavender plants and I like to maintain a supply of them for replacements. If we don't need them in our garden, we give them to other gardeners.

At this time of year you can use either/both hardwood or softwood cuttings.
 
Lavender cuttings in moist vermiculite

The hardwood cuttings have worked for me but can take longer to strike roots.

Cut a 4 to 6 inch long piece of the plant that includes a growing tip.

The softwood grows out of the bottom of the plant where it has recently emerged from the roots.

Remove the leaves from the bottom half of the cuttings.


Put moist sand, vermiculite or perlite into a container and make a hole in it with a pencil or other object - for each cutting. If you try to just stick the tender cuttings into planting medium it will bend.

Press cuttings in firmly, bringing sand up to the base of the cutting.

The rooting medium should be kept moist but not soggy. I check them every day or two.

Some of them will not make roots and those will just die after a while. Toss them out. But if you take 6 or 8 cuttings, you'll have plenty of lavender in time for fall perennial planting.

Cuttings need no sun or artificial light while making roots. The photos were taken in the sun for visibility only.


11 February 2016

Cold Sarting Seeds

Planting seeds outside during the winter is essential for success with many plants, ideal for others, and just plain convenient for some.


Seeds that need cold treatment (cold stratification) include the ones with protective coatings, native wildflowers, and cold-hardy perennials. The instructions for seeds such as Pulmonaria and Achillea say to try to start them at 60-degrees but if that fails, chill the containers. Or, chill them at the beginning. Go to the website http://tomclothier.hort.net for a list of seeds’ requirements.

Three cold-treatment methods that work include: 1) Plant in recycled containers that are monitored outside; 2) Pre-chill the seeds in the refrigerator; and, 3) direct sow the seeds on prepared beds that are either open to the elements or mulched.


Flowers such as Poppies, Larkspur and Nigella are planted directly on top of prepared soil now. These and other deeply rooted flowers rarely do as well if they are transplanted from containers. 

Clear the bed and prepare the soil first. I usually put a thin layer of vermiculite on top and/or potting soil under winter-seeded areas so I can monitor them for rain or animal damage.

Green vegetables such as spinach, chard, broccoli, and kale can be direct-sown in the ground now and mulched. They come up when the soil and air temperature are to their liking. Some cool weather vegetables, such as Alaskan peas, can rot in the ground if they are planted this early because they are two-inches deep where the soil stays cold and wet.

Sowing seeds in recycled plastic is an ideal method for most perennial plants. The containers provide protection from birds, squirrels and neighborhood cats as well as reducing weather damage.

To make a min-greenhouse garden, collect clear plastic bottles from milk, juice, etc. Poke drainage holes in the bottom with scissors or something like a heated ice pick. Cut containers horizontally at least 4-inches from the bottom and discard the bottle caps.

Gather your seeds and write the plant’s name and date planted on the container with a permanent marker.  Also put a marked tag, such as a Popsicle stick inside each container.

When planting begins in the spring it will reduce the confusion if your labels include a hint about where they go in the garden (sun or shade, wet or good drainage, etc.).
Fill the bottom of each mini-greenhouse with loose soil such as commercial potting soil. Many people mix their own out of garden dirt, sand, compost and perlite.

Wet the soil and let it drain. Tiny seeds that need light to germinate are pressed into the top of the soil and seeds that need dark to germinate are pressed into the soil.

Secure the top of the greenhouses with tape. It does not have to be a perfect seal but you want it to hang together through rain, freeze, warm days and wind.   

Put the containers in a sunny spot where rain and snow can enter through the top. During periods of no rainfall, bottom water the greenhouses by putting them into a plastic and pouring water - not freezing cold water - into the pan. When the soil has absorbed enough water to be moist not wet, drain the saucers.

If plants emerge on warm days you can open the greenhouses but re-seal them again before freezing temperatures return.


To pre-chill seeds indoors, wet 1/3 cup garden sand with 2-teaspoons water. Add seed and refrigerate in a labeled plastic bag. Mark the bag with the ideal start and end dates of cold treatment. Check the seeds weekly for sprouting. Immediately plant into containers any seedlings that emerge.

Wait another month to start seeds of tender perennials and annuals.




09 February 2016

Weeds - Weed Science Society of America

The Weed Science blog provided a link to their fact sheet about noxious, invasive, super and just plain weeds at  http://wssa.net/wp-content/uploads/WSSA-Weed-Science-Definitions.pdf

"Certain characteristics determine which term is most accurate – or whether the weed in question might actually fit into multiple categories."

Giant Foxtail
" a weed as a plant that causes economic losses or ecological damage, creates health problems for humans or animals, or is undesirable where it is growing. Examples: Crabgrass (Digitaria) Giant foxtail (Setaria faberii) Common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album)"

"Once a weed is classified as noxious, authorities can implement quarantines and take other actions to contain or destroy the weed and limit its spread. Examples: Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) Witchweed (Striga spp.)"

Hydrilla
"Invasive weed Invasive weeds are weeds that establish, persist and spread widely in natural ecosystems outside the plant’s native range. When in a foreign locale, these invaders often lack natural enemies to curtail their growth – enabling them to overrun native plants and ecosystems. It should be no surprise that many invasive weeds are also classified as noxious weeds by government authorities. Examples: Tree-of-Heaven (Ailanthus altissima) Saltcedar/Tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima) Downy Brome/Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum)."

"Invasive weeds are not native to the ecosystem under consideration and cause or are likely to cause harm to human, animal or plant health, the economy or the environment."

Click over to the link at the top to read the rest and see the photos of all the weeds and their level of noxiousness.

06 February 2016

Native Plants for zones 7-8

One of the many wonderful outcomes from native plants becoming popular again is that state university extension services are posting lists of native plants for gardeners.

Ten years ago most of us gardeners couldn't tell an Asian invasive from a native beneficial. Today, most gardeners are at least aware of the problems non-native plants can cause, in particular, choking out the ability of native plants to thrive and support local wildlife.

The University of Mississippi Landscape Services has posted a guide to commercially available native plants for that state.

MS growing zones range from 7a in the north (just south of Memphis TN) to 8b on the gulf coast.in Biloxi and Gulfport. Here's a map.


In contrast, Oklahoma is zone 6b on the Kansas line (Bartlesville) but zone 7 for most of the rest of the state. We all know how microclimates and rainfall variations make zone 7 wildly different from one area to another.

With all that said, the current changes in climate worldwide also have to advise our plant selections.

Here's a list of MS native plants - follow this link for full details.

Mississippi

Commercially available native plant species suitable for planned landscapes in Mississippi.
ThumbSpeciesCharacteristics

Acer negundo
Ash-leaf maple, Ash-leaved maple, Box elder, Boxelder, Fresno de guajuco

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Sun
Water: Moist

Acer rubrum var. drummondii
Drummond's maple, Drummond red maple, Swamp maple

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Part-shade
Water: Wet, Moist

Achillea millefolium
Common yarrow, Yarrow, Milfoil, Western yarrow

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Dry

Aesculus pavia
Scarlet Buckeye, Red buckeye, Firecracker plant

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub, Tree
Light: Part-shade
Water: Moist

Amelanchier arborea
Common serviceberry, Downy serviceberry, Shadbush, Juneberry

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub
Light: Sun, Shade, Part-shade
Water: Dry

Amsonia tabernaemontana
Eastern bluestar, Blue dogbane, Willow amsonia, Woodland bluestar

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Part-shade
Water: Wet

Andropogon gerardii
Big bluestem, Turkeyfoot

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Grass/Grass-like
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Moist

Aquilegia canadensis
Eastern red columbine, Wild red columbine

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Shade, Part-shade
Water: Moist, Dry

Aralia spinosa
Devil's walkingstick, Devil’s walking-stick, Prickly Ash, Hercules club, Angelica tree

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Part-shade
Water: Moist

Asclepias lanceolata
Fewflower milkweed, Few-flower milkweed, Red milkweed

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun
Water: Wet

Asclepias tuberosa
Butterflyweed, Butterfly milkweed, Orange milkweed, Pleurisy root

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Moist, Dry

Asimina parviflora
Smallflower pawpaw, Small-flower pawpaw, Dwarf pawpaw

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub
Light: Part-shade
Water:

Asimina triloba
Pawpaw, Common paw paw, Indian banana

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Sun, Shade, Part-shade
Water: Moist

Asplenium platyneuron
Ebony spleenwort

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Fern
Light: Shade, Part-shade
Water: Moist

Athyrium filix-femina
Common ladyfern, Lady fern, Ladyfern, Subarctic lady fern

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb, Fern
Light: Shade, Part-shade
Water: Wet, Moist

Betula nigra
River birch, Red birch

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Part-shade
Water: Moist

Bignonia capreolata
Crossvine

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Vine
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Moist, Dry

Bouteloua curtipendula
Sideoats grama

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Grass/Grass-like
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Moist, Dry

Callicarpa americana
American beautyberry, French mulberry

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub
Light: Part-shade
Water: Moist

Callirhoe papaver
Woodland Poppy-mallow, Woodland poppymallow

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: 
Water:

Calycanthus floridus
Eastern sweetshrub, Carolina allspice, Sweet shrub

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub
Light: Part-shade
Water: Moist

Campsis radicans
Trumpet creeper, Trumpet vine, Common trumpet creeper, Cow vine

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Vine
Light: Sun
Water: Moist, Dry

Carpinus caroliniana
American hornbeam, Blue beech, Musclewood, Ironwood

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Shade, Part-shade
Water: Moist

Carya glabra
Pignut hickory

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Sun, Shade, Part-shade
Water: Dry

Carya illinoinensis
Pecan

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Sun
Water: Moist

Catalpa bignonioides
Southern catalpa, Cigar tree, Indian bean

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Part-shade
Water: Wet

Cercis canadensis
Eastern redbud, Redbud

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Shade, Part-shade
Water: Moist

Chionanthus virginicus
White fringetree, Fringe tree, Grancy Graybeard

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Part-shade
Water: Moist

Cliftonia monophylla
Buckwheat tree, Buckwheat bush

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub
Light: Sun
Water: Wet

Commelina erecta
Whitemouth dayflower, Widow's tears, Day flower, White-mouth dayflower

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Part-shade
Water: Dry

Conoclinium coelestinum
Blue mistflower

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Moist

Coreopsis lanceolata
Lanceleaf coreopsis, Lanceleaf tickseed, Lance-leaved coreopsis, Sand coreopsis

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun, Shade, Part-shade
Water: Dry

Coreopsis tinctoria
Plains coreopsis, Golden tickseed, Goldenwave, Calliopsis

Duration: Annual
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Moist

Cornus drummondii
Roughleaf dogwood, Drummond's dogwood, Rough-leaf dogwood

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Shade, Part-shade
Water: Moist, Dry

Cornus florida
Flowering dogwood, Virginia dogwood

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Shade, Part-shade
Water: Moist, Dry

Crataegus opaca
Mayhaw, Riverflat hawthorn, Western mayhaw

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Part-shade
Water: Wet

Crinum americanum
Crinum lily, Seven sisters, Swamp lily, Southern swamp lily, String lily

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub
Light: Part-shade
Water: Wet

Cyrilla racemiflora
Swamp titi, Titi, Leatherwood, Swamp cyrilla, Palo colorado

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Part-shade
Water: Wet

Delphinium carolinianum
Carolina larkspur, Blue larkspur, Prairie larkspur, Espuela del caballero

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Part-shade
Water: Dry

Diospyros virginiana
Common persimmon, Eastern persimmon

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Part-shade
Water: Dry

Dracopis amplexicaulis
Clasping coneflower, Clasping-leaf coneflower

Duration: Annual
Habit: Herb
Light: Part-shade
Water: Moist

Echinacea pallida
Pale purple coneflower, Pale coneflower

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun
Water: Moist, Dry

Echinacea purpurea
Eastern purple coneflower, Purple coneflower

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Dry

Eupatoriadelphus fistulosus
Trumpetweed, Queen of the meadow, Hollow Joe-pye weed, Joe-pye weed

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun
Water: Wet, Moist

Fagus grandifolia
American beech

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Shade, Part-shade
Water: Moist

Forestiera acuminata
Eastern swamp-privet, Eastern swampprivet

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub
Light: Part-shade
Water: Wet

Fothergilla major
Mountain witchalder, Mountain witch-alder, Large fothergilla

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub
Light: Part-shade
Water:

Frangula caroliniana
Carolina buckthorn, Carolina false buckthorn, Indian cherry

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Part-shade
Water: Moist

Fraxinus pennsylvanica
Green ash, Red ash

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Sun, Shade, Part-shade
Water: Wet, Moist, Dry

Gaillardia pulchella
Firewheel, Indian Blanket

Duration: Annual
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Dry

Gaylussacia dumosa
Dwarf huckleberry

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub
Light: Part-shade
Water:

Gelsemium sempervirens
Carolina jessamine, Yellow jessamine, Evening trumpetflower, Poor man's rope

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Vine
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Moist

Gentiana saponaria
Harvestbells, Soapwort gentian

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Part-shade
Water:

Glandularia canadensis
Rose vervain, Sweet william, Rose mock vervain

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Part-shade
Water: Moist

Gleditsia triacanthos
Honey locust, Common Honey-locust, Honey-locust, Thornless common honey-locust, Honey shucks

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Part-shade
Water: Moist

Gordonia lasianthus
Gordonia, Loblolly bay

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub
Light: Sun
Water: Moist

Halesia diptera
Two-wing silverbell, Silver bell, Two-winged silverbell, Snowdrop tree, American snowdrop tree

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub, Tree
Light: Part-shade
Water: Dry

Hamamelis virginiana
Witch hazel, American witch hazel

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Shade, Part-shade
Water: Moist, Dry

Helianthus angustifolius
Swamp sunflower

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Part-shade
Water: Wet

Hibiscus coccineus
Scarlet rose-mallow, Scarlet rosemallow, Texas star hibiscus, Wild red mallow

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun
Water: Wet

Hydrangea arborescens
Wild hydrangea, Sevenbark

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub
Light: Part-shade
Water: Moist

Hydrangea quercifolia
Oakleaf hydrangea, Oak-leaf hydrangea

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub
Light: Shade
Water: Moist

Hypericum hypericoides ssp. hypericoides
St. Andrew's cross

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub
Light: Part-shade
Water:

Ilex decidua
Possumhaw, Possumhaw Holly, Deciduous Holly, Winterberry, Deciduous yaupon

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Moist

Ilex opaca
American holly, Christmas holly

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Sun, Shade, Part-shade
Water: Wet, Dry

Ilex vomitoria
Yaupon, Yaupon holly, Cassina

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub, Tree
Light: Sun, Shade, Part-shade
Water: Moist, Dry

Ipomopsis rubra
Standing cypress, Texas plume, Red Texas star, Red gilia

Duration: Biennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Dry

Iris brevicaulis
Zigzag iris

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun, Shade, Part-shade
Water: Wet, Moist

Iris fulva
Copper iris, Red iris

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Wet, Moist

Iris giganticaerulea
Blue flag, Giant blue iris

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Part-shade
Water: Wet

Iris virginica
Virginia iris, Great Blue Flag

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun
Water: Wet

Itea virginica
Virginia sweetspire, Tassel-white

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub
Light: Part-shade
Water: Moist

Juglans nigra
Black walnut, Eastern black walnut

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Moist

Juniperus virginiana
Eastern red cedar, Eastern redcedar, Virginia juniper

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Sun, Shade, Part-shade
Water: Dry

Kosteletzkya virginica
Virginia saltmarsh mallow, Virginia fen-rose, Seashore mallow, Salt Marsh-mallow

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Subshrub
Light: Sun
Water: Moist

Leucothoe axillaris
Coastal doghobble, Coast leucothoe

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub
Light: Shade, Part-shade
Water: Moist

Liatris elegans
Blazing star, Gay feather, Pink-scale gayfeather, Pinkscale blazing star

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun
Water: Dry

Liatris pycnostachya
Prairie Blazing Star, Kansas Ggayfeather, Cat-tail Gayfeather, Hairy Button-snakeroot

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun
Water: Moist, Dry

Liatris squarrosa
Blazing star, Scaly blazing star, Scaly gayfeather

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun
Water: Dry

Lilium michauxii
Carolina lily

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Part-shade
Water: Moist, Dry

Lindera benzoin
Northern spicebush, Spicebush

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub
Light: Sun, Shade, Part-shade
Water: Wet, Moist, Dry

Liquidambar styraciflua
Sweetgum, American sweetgum

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Part-shade
Water: Moist

Lobelia cardinalis
Cardinal flower

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun, Shade, Part-shade
Water: Wet, Moist

Lobelia siphilitica
Great blue lobelia

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun, Shade, Part-shade
Water: Wet, Moist

Lonicera sempervirens
Coral honeysuckle, Trumpet honeysuckle, Woodbine

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Vine
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Moist

Malus angustifolia
Southern crabapple, Wild crabapple

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Part-shade
Water: Moist

Monarda citriodora
Lemon beebalm, Horsemint, Purple horsemint, Lemon mint, Plains horsemint, Lemon horsemint

Duration: Annual
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Dry

Monarda fistulosa
Wild bergamot, Beebalm

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Moist, Dry

Monarda punctata
Spotted beebalm, Spotted horsemint, Horsemint

Duration: Annual
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun
Water: Dry

Morella cerifera
Wax myrtle, Southern bayberry, Candleberry

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Wet, Moist

Oenothera speciosa
Pink evening primrose, Showy evening primrose, Mexican evening primrose, Showy primrose, Pink ladies, Buttercups, Pink buttercups

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun
Water: Moist, Dry

Osmanthus americanus
Devilwood, Wild olive

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Part-shade
Water: Moist

Osmunda regalis
Royal fern

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb, Fern
Light: Shade, Part-shade
Water: Wet, Moist

Ostrya virginiana
Eastern hop-hornbeam, Hophornbeam, Ironwood

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Sun, Shade, Part-shade
Water: Moist, Dry

Oxydendrum arboreum
Sourwood, Sorrel tree

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Part-shade
Water:

Panicum virgatum
Switchgrass, Wand panic grass

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Grass/Grass-like
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Moist, Dry

Parthenocissus quinquefolia
Virginia creeper

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Vine
Light: Sun, Shade, Part-shade
Water: Moist

Penstemon digitalis
Mississippi penstemon, Smooth white beardtongue, Talus slope penstemon, Foxglove beardtongue

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Wet, Moist, Dry

Phlox divaricata
Wild blue phlox, Louisiana phlox, Blue woodland phlox, Sweet william, Wild sweet william

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Shade, Part-shade
Water: Moist

Phlox pilosa
Downy phlox, Prairie phlox, Fragrant phlox

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Dry

Photinia pyrifolia
Red chokeberry, Red chokecherry

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub
Light: Sun
Water: Moist

Pinus echinata
Shortleaf pine, Yellow pine, Spruce pine

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Part-shade
Water: Dry

Pinus elliottii
Slash pine

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Part-shade
Water: Moist

Pinus glabra
Spruce pine

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Part-shade
Water: Moist

Pinus palustris
Longleaf pine, Georgia pine

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Sun
Water: Dry

Pinus taeda
Loblolly pine, Old field pine, Bull pine, Rosemary pine

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Part-shade
Water: Dry

Platanus occidentalis
American sycamore, Buttonwood, Plane-tree, Sycamore

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Sun, Shade, Part-shade
Water: Moist

Polystichum acrostichoides
Christmas fern

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Fern
Light: Shade, Part-shade
Water: Moist

Prunus angustifolia
Chickasaw plum, Sandhill plum

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Dry

Prunus mexicana
Mexican plum, Bigtree plum

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Moist, Dry

Prunus serotina
Black cherry, Rum cherry

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Sun, Shade, Part-shade
Water: Moist, Dry

Quercus alba
White oak, Northern white oak, Stave Oak, Ridge White Oak, Forked-leaf White Oak

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Sun, Shade, Part-shade
Water: Moist, Dry

Quercus falcata
Southern red oak, Spanish oak

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Part-shade
Water: Dry

Quercus nigra
Water oak

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Part-shade
Water: Wet

Quercus phellos
Willow oak

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Part-shade
Water: Moist

Quercus shumardii
Shumard oak, Shumard's oak, Shumard red oak, Southern red oak

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Moist, Dry

Quercus stellata
Post oak

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Part-shade
Water: Dry

Quercus virginiana
Coastal live oak, Southern live oak, Live oak

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Moist

Ratibida columnifera
Mexican hat, Prairie coneflower, Upright prairie coneflower, Red-spike mexican-hat, Long-headed coneflower, Thimbleflower

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun
Water: Moist, Dry

Rhododendron austrinum
Orange azalea, Florida azalea, Yellow azalea

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub
Light: Part-shade
Water: Dry

Rhododendron canescens
Mountain azalea, Wild azalea, Honeysuckle azalea, Piedmont azalea, Sweet azalea, Hoary azalea, Southern pinxterflower

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub
Light: Part-shade
Water: Dry

Rhus glabra
Smooth sumac

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub
Light: Sun, Shade, Part-shade
Water: Dry

Robinia pseudoacacia
Black locust, Honey locust

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Sun
Water: Moist, Dry

Rudbeckia hirta
Black-eyed Susan, Common black-eyed Susan, Brown-eyed Susan

Duration: Annual
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun, Shade, Part-shade
Water: Moist, Dry

Rudbeckia laciniata
Cutleaf coneflower, Green-head coneflower, Cut-leaf coneflower

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun, Shade, Part-shade
Water: Moist

Salvia azurea
Pitcher sage, Big blue sage, Azure sage, Giant blue sage, Blue sage

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Part-shade
Water: Dry

Sambucus nigra ssp. canadensis
Common elderberry, Black elder, Mexican elderberry, Common elder, Elderberry, Tapiro, Sauco

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub
Light: Part-shade
Water: Wet

Sassafras albidum
Sassafras

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Sun, Shade, Part-shade
Water: Moist

Spartina patens
Marsh-hay cord grass, Salt-meadow cord grass, Saltmeadow cordgrass

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Grass/Grass-like
Light: Sun
Water: Wet

Spigelia marilandica
Woodland pinkroot, Pinkroot, Indian pink, Spigelia

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Part-shade
Water: Dry

Stewartia malacodendron
Silky camellia, Virginia stewartia

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub
Light: Shade
Water:

Stokesia laevis
Stokes aster

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Moist

Symphoricarpos orbiculatus
Coralberry, Indian currant, Buckbrush

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub
Light: Shade, Part-shade
Water: Moist, Dry

Taxodium distichum
Bald cypress, Baldcypress, Common bald cypress, Southern bald cypress, Deciduous cypress

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Moist

Tilia americana
American basswood, American linden, Lime tree, Bee tree

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Sun, Shade, Part-shade
Water: Moist, Dry

Trifolium reflexum
Buffalo clover

Duration: Annual
Habit: Herb
Light: Sun
Water: Dry

Ulmus alata
Winged elm, Wahoo

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Part-shade
Water: Dry

Ulmus americana
American elm, White elm

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Sun, Part-shade
Water: Moist

Ulmus crassifolia
Cedar elm, Fall elm, Olmo

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Part-shade
Water: Moist

Vaccinium arboreum
Farkleberry, Tree sparkleberry, Sparkleberry

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Light: Part-shade
Water: Dry

Viola pedata
Birdfoot violet, Bird’s-foot violet, Bird-foot violet

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Light: Shade, Part-shade
Water: Dry

Wisteria frutescens
American wisteria, Texas wisteria, Kentucky wisteria

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Vine
Light: Sun, Shade, Part-shade
Water: Moist

Yucca aloifolia
Aloe yucca, Spanish dagger

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Cactus/Succulent
Light: Sun
Water: Dry